The Paris Agreement is a landmark international treaty adopted in December 2015 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It represents a global effort to combat climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, adapting to the impacts of climate change, and mobilizing financial and technological support for developing countries.

Key elements of the Paris Agreement include:

  1. Long-term Temperature Goal: The primary objective of the Paris Agreement is to limit the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, with efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. This ambitious goal aims to prevent the most severe impacts of climate change.
  2. Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs): Each participating country is required to submit a nationally determined contribution outlining its targets and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change. These contributions are intended to be ambitious, progressive, and reflect each country’s national circumstances and capabilities.
  3. Global Stocktake: The Paris Agreement establishes a process for periodic global stocktakes to assess collective progress towards the agreement’s goals. These stocktakes occur every five years, allowing countries to review and strengthen their climate action efforts based on the latest scientific knowledge and technological advancements.
  4. Financial Support: Developed countries are obligated to provide financial assistance to developing countries to support their climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts. The agreement reaffirms the commitment to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 from a variety of sources, including public and private finance.
  5. Transparency and Accountability: The Paris Agreement includes provisions for transparency and accountability to ensure that countries accurately report their emissions and progress towards their NDCs. This transparency framework aims to build trust among countries and enhance the effectiveness of global climate action.
  6. Adaptation: The agreement recognizes the importance of adaptation to the impacts of climate change, particularly for vulnerable countries and communities. It calls for enhanced support for adaptation efforts and the development of adaptation strategies and plans.

The Paris Agreement entered into force on November 4, 2016, and has been ratified by nearly all countries in the world, demonstrating widespread global commitment to addressing climate change. It represents a critical framework for international cooperation on climate action and provides a pathway towards a more sustainable and resilient future for all.